under the sun, but is not able to force out Spaniards and Portuguese from those ways which conduct to sources of their riches. Therefore England and Holland had to look for new routes from Europe to the countries of the East: the northwest – round North America and northeast – round the northern coast of Asia. Meaning both of these options, seafarers proceeded from the right assumption that Asia and America are divided by the passage on which it is possible to get from the Arctic Ocean in Silent.
Geographical discoveries which deserve definition "great", were made on our planet during all historical eras, from antiquity and to the XX century. But an era of Great geographical discoveries it is accepted to call strictly certain historical period. Domestic historians and geographers usually limit its chronological framework to the middle or the end of XV - the middle of the XVII centuries. Any other era was not so sated with geographical discoveries, never they had such exclusive value for destinies of Europe and the whole world. Boundaries of an oykumena were moved apart by efforts of several generations of seafarers and zemleprokhodets; the world as if began to sparkle new paints, appeared in all the magnificent variety.
On October 7 from the ships the great number of the birds flying to the South West was noticed. Columbus knew that it happened to Portuguese to open islands, following flight of birds, and he turned to the southwest. The decision again was correct: at preservation of a former course the ships would get to a powerful stream of Gulf Stream which could prevent them to reach coast of America and would carry away them far on the northeast, to the open ocean.
I would like to tell about some geographical discoveries. I chose this subject because it seems to me that people have to know the history and store memory of great people who created it.
The next some months were, maybe, the happiest in the Admiral's life. The dream of his life came true, opponents of its project were shamed. The royal couple showered the seafarer with favor and granted him the coat of arms on which the lock of Castile and a lion of Leon adjoined to images of the islands opened for them, and also anchors – symbols of an admiral's title. Immediately preparation for the following swimming began.
The big role was played an era of Great geographical discoveries also by the gaining ground idea of sphericity of Earth; the thought of possibility of the western sea way to India through the Atlantic Ocean was connected with it.
It is difficult to overestimate value of Great geographical discoveries in the epic of knowledge the person of a terrestrial surface. Contours of all manned continents were defined (except northern and northwest coast of America and east coast of Australia), the most part of a terrestrial surface is investigated; however yet not studied were many internal regions of America, Africa, Asia and especially Australia. Great opening gave new extensive material for many other areas of knowledge – history, ethnography, botany, zoology. As a result of Great geographical discoveries potatoes and tomatoes, corn and tobacco came to Europe so habitual for us today.
Kolumbovo the decision to cross Atlantic at the width of the Canary Islands was remarkably exact: the fair wind and a current quickly bore vessels in the necessary direction. More convenient way on the West in this part of Atlantic does not exist.
There are also other points of view on the chronological framework of an era of Great geographical discoveries limiting with its middle of XV - the middle of the XVI centuries or, on the contrary, including in it and remarkable opening of the XVIII century.
On August 5 Columbus for the first time landed on the continent. Surveying coast of the Gulf of Paria, he found out that water here fresh, and drew a conclusion: the river abounding in water (here and really there are channels of the delta of the great South American river Orinoco), what cannot be even on the biggest island flows into the gulf from the South. It could be only the continent.
Great geographical discoveries made the stunning impression on contemporaries who perfectly realized scales occurring, of events. The facts disproved representations of all authorities of antiquity. The belief in infallible perfection of antique wisdom failed. Before Europeans the new cultural horizons opened. Inhabitants of again opened lands lived absolutely differently, than Europeans, and the most inquisitive minds of that era ceased to look at the European orders as on unique and began to connect with the New World an ideal social system. Opening the world, Europeans learned themselves.